The Veluwe research site is situated in the centre of the Netherlands. The force of glaciers in the ice ages formed the characteristics of the landscape with ice pushed hills. The groundwater levels are deep in the centre and shallow at the fringes. The land use consists of forest mainly. Residential areas and dairy farming surround the Veluwe. Its subsoil contains a large reservoir of fresh groundwater that is exploited for the production of drinking water.
Which sectors did it involve?
Provincie Gelderland and the public water supply company Vitens are partners in Bingo. The Water Board Vallei and Veluwe is closely involved in the entire BINGO project.
Other organisations who have participated in the community of practice are Nature management organisations, Organisation of private land owners, Brook foundation, Van Hall Larenstein University of Applied Sciences and the municipality of Amersfoort on behalf of the municipalities in the Gelderse Valley.
What was done?
Within the BINGO-project the groundwater model AZURE is improved. For the Veluwe three climate change ensembles have been calculated, dry, moderate and wet. Because the Veluwe responds slowly on changes in climate, also an ensemble with three consecutive dry years has been calculated. For three possible measures (sprinkler restrictions, land use change and infiltration of surface water) the change in the groundwater level was calculated, both for the current situation and for the ensembles.
Also experiments have been carried out for improving knowledge and measurement methods of the evaporation and interception of trees.
Five workshops were organised to reflect together with the stakeholders on the consequences of climate change for function and the possible adaptation measures and their effects.
A final symposium is organised dedicated to disseminating the final results. The event was attended by more than 80 policy makers from different levels of government, scientists, NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations) and local entrepreneurs.
Which were the main results?
BINGO has provided more information on the effects of climate change on the groundwater system in the Veluwe. In the short term, the changes fall within the natural variation. However, several dry years in a row can cause drought damage.
If measures are needed, land use change has much more effect on groundwater recharge than groundwater abstraction. The Veluwe is a huge groundwater system. If you want to influence this system you have to take big measures. The involvement of stakeholders in a community of practice makes groundwater a more prominent topic in the overall management of the Veluwe.
What is BINGO’s legacy in Veluwe?
The experiments that have been carried out provide a better estimate of forest and grass/heather vegetation evapotranspiration. This knowledge is transferable to other sites with the same types of vegetation. Through a better understanding of the groundwater system and of the evapotranspiration, the groundwater model Azure is improved. Future projects will benefit of this improved groundwater model.
More knowledge about the impact of adaptation measures are important results for other projects regarding ground water management. If it is necessary to increase the groundwater level at the Veluwe, large-scale measures are needed. Small-scale measures have little effect.